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Important Functions Of Cell Organelles

What is Cell?

A cell is the smallest functional unit of all living organisms. A cell is also called the structural and fundamental unit of all the living species as it is mainly involved in carrying out numerous important biological activities of a living organism. 

Every single  living organism existing on this planet earth is composed of the cell. The total number of cells in living species generally vary from one to trillions. There are many species, existing with one cell, called unicellular organisms and few are composed of millions to billions of specialized cells, called multicellular species.

The term cell was originally derived from a Latin word “cella” meaning a small room.

What are Cell Organelles?

In general, a human body comprises about 30-38 trillion of cells which are mainly involved in several specific and specialized functions. All the specialized functions are carried out by a group of specialized organelles, which are present within the cell.

Cell organelles are the structural and  functional unit of the cell. These specialized organelles are also called the components of cells, which helps in keeping the cell alive and active. In living cells, the cell organelles are further classified based on the presence or absence of membrane.

  1. Organelles without membrane– Cell wall, cytoskeleton and ribosomes lack membrane, hence they are classified into non -membrane-bound cell organelles.
  2. Single membrane-bound organelles–Endoplasmic Reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosome and vacuoles are bounded with a single layer of membrane.
  3. Double membrane-bound organelles–Chloroplast, mitochondria and nucleus are bounded with a double layer of membrane.

Other than these three categories, there is a specialized cell membrane, which is also called the plasma membrane. It is a semi-permeable membrane of the cell, which functions by allowing the entry and exit of only selected substances in and out of the cell.

Functions of Cell Organelles

All cell organelles have their own specialized functions to keep cells active and alive through its life span.  Listed below are functions of some important cellular organelles.

Cell Wall

It is the outermost cellular organelle, which is present only in plants, bacteria, algae and some fungi. They are mainly involved in providing structural support, rigidity and protection to the inner layer of the cell.


It is double-membrane and the largest organelle organelle, which is found both in plants, animals and in all eukaryotic cells. It acts as the control centre of the cellular activities and is the storehouse of the cell’s DNA.


It is double-membrane and an oval-shaped cell organelle, which is mainly responsible for cellular respiration. It is found both in plants, animals and in all eukaryotic cells. It  is called “Energy Currency Of the Cell” as it is a storehouse for energy, and stores in the form of ATP – Adenosine Triphosphate molecules

Golgi Apparatus 

It is a single membrane-bound organelle, which are found both in plants, animals and in all eukaryotic cells. It is also termed as Golgi Complex or golgi bodies.The golgi body functions by modifying and transporting both the proteins and lipids to targeted destinations. Hence, it is also termed as “postman of the cell”.


It is a jelly-like substance,  found both in plants, animals and in all eukaryotic cells. It mainly consists of water, dissolved nutrients and other waste products of the cell.

This cell organelle is mainly responsible for the cellular metabolic activities.

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Endoplasmic Reticulum

It is a  network of membranous tubules, present within the cytoplasm of a cell.

This cell organelle forms a skeletal framework of the cell and is involved in removing toxins or detoxifying the cells, along with the production of proteins and Lipids.

These are a few informations related to the cell and their organelles. There are more interesting facts and information related to the cell, types of cells, their organelles and a lot more.

Stay tuned with BYJU’S Biology to learn more in detail about the different Biology concepts and also learn by watching interactive videos by subscribing to our youtube videos at our BYJU’S website.

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